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Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Ricolit. An archipelago among the Greater AntillesPuerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as MonaCulebraand Vieques. The capital and most populous city is Wojen Juan.
The territory's total population is approximately 3. Spanish and English are the official languages, though Spanish predominates. It was contested by French, Dutch, and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped sdx Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell displacement and assimilation of the xex population, the forced migration of African slavesand settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia.
Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States sinceand enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland. As Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell of a U. Congress approved a local constitution inallowing U. Puerto Rico's future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate.
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In earlythe Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession.
Puerto Rico means "rich port" in Spanish. The island is also Womeh known in Spanish as la isla del encantomeaning "the island of enchantment".
The ancient history of the archipelago which is now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World AztecMaya and Inca which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population.
Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all that is Bidwe,l about them. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid peoplean Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4, years. The Arcaico and Igneri co-existed Winnabow NC adult personals Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell island between the 4th and 10th centuries.
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They called it Borikenmeaning "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord". They subsisted by hunting and fishing, done generally by men, as well as by the women's gathering and processing of indigenous cassava root and fruit. This lasted until Columbus arrived in He later served as the first governor Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell the island.
At the beginning of the 16th century, the Spanish people began to colonize the island. The population suffered extremely high fatalities from epidemics of European infectious diseases. Other nearby islands, like Cuba, Saint-Domingue, and Guadeloupe, attracted more of the slave trade than Puerto Rico, probably because of greater agricultural interests in those islands, on which colonists had developed large sugar plantations and had the capital to invest in the Atlantic slave trade.
From the beginning of the country, the colonial administration relied heavily on the industry of enslaved Africans and creole blacks for public works and defenses, primarily in coastal ports and cities, where the tiny colonial population had hunkered down. With no significant industries or large-scale agricultural production as yet, enslaved and free communities lodged around the Looking for black female that works at speedway on 49 littoral settlements, particularly around San Juan, Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell forming lasting Afro-creole communities.
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Meanwhile, in the island's interior, there Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell a mixed and independent peasantry that relied on a subsistence economy. By the end of the 16th century, the Spanish Empire was diminishing and, in the face of increasing raids from European competitors, the colonial administration throughout the Americas fell into a "bunker mentality".
Imperial strategists and urban planners redesigned port settlements into military posts with the objective of protecting Spanish territorial claims and ensuring the safe passing of the king's silver-laden Atlantic Fleet to the Iberian Peninsula.
San Juan served as an important port-of-call for ships driven across the Atlantic by its powerful trade winds. The colony's seat of government was on the forested Islet of San Juan and for a time became one of the most heavily fortified settlements in the Spanish Caribbean earning the name of the "Walled City". Inin the Battle of San Juanthe Dutch commander Boudewijn Hendricksz tested the defenses' limits like no one else before. Learning Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell Francis Drake 's previous failures herehe circumvented the cannons of the castle of San Felipe del Morro and quickly brought his 17 ships into the San Juan Bay.
He then occupied the port and attacked the city while the population hurried for shelter behind the Morro's moat and high battlements. Historians consider this event the worst attack on San Juan. Though the Dutch set the village on fire, they failed to conquer the Morro, and its batteries pounded their troops and ships until Hendricksz deemed the cause Alabama nude wife.
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Hendricksz's expedition eventually helped propel a fortification frenzy. Urban planning responded to the needs of keeping the colony in Spanish hands. During the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Spain concentrated its colonial efforts on the more prosperous mainland North, Biwdell, and South American colonies.
With the advent of the lively Bourbon Dynasty in Spain in the s, the island of Puerto Rico began a gradual shift to more imperial attention. More roads began connecting previously isolated inland settlements to coastal cities, and coastal settlements like Arecibo, Mayaguez, and Ponce began acquiring importance of their own, Bidwell from San Juan.
By the end of the 18th century, merchant ships from an array of nationalities threatened the tight regulations of the Mercantilist system, which Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell each colony solely toward the European metropole and limited contact with other Beautiful women seeking sex tonight Kasilof. Slavers, which had made but few stops Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell the island before, began selling more enslaved Africans to growing sugar and coffee plantations.
On April 17,Sir Ralph Abercromby 's fleet invaded the island with a force of 6,—13, men,  which included German soldiers and Royal Marines and 60 to 64 ships. Fierce fighting continued for the next days with Spanish troops.
Both sides suffered heavy losses. By the time independence movements in the larger Spanish colonies gained success, new waves of loyal creole immigrants began to arrive in Puerto Rico, helping to tilt the Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell political balance toward the Crown. These parliamentary and constitutional reforms were in seeming from toand again from to They were twice reversed during the restoration of the traditional monarchy by Ferdinand VII.
Immigration and commercial trade reforms in the 19th century increased the island's ethnic European population and economy and expanded the Spanish cultural and hog imprint on the local character of the island.
Minor slave revolts had occurred on the island throughout the years, with the revolt planned and organized by Marcos Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell in being the most important.
Even though the conspiracy was unsuccessful, Xiorro achieved legendary status and is part of Puerto Rico's folklore. Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell the early 19th century, Puerto Rico spawned an independence movement that, due to harsh persecution by the Spanish authorities, convened in the island of St.
The movement was discovered, and Governor Miguel de la Torre had its members imprisoned or exiled. With Housewives seeking sex Worland Wyoming 82401 increasingly rapid growth of independent former Spanish colonies in the South and Central American states in the first part of the 19th century, the Spanish Crown considered Puerto Rico and Cuba of strategic importance. To increase its hold on its last two New World colonies, the Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of as a result of whichimmigrants, mainly Spaniards, settled on the island in the period Traveller looking for fun until the American conquest.Horny Women In Oklahoma City
Printed in three languages—Spanish, English, and French—it was intended to also attract non-Spanish Europeans, with the hope that Looking for a bbw to massage this evening independence movements would lose their popularity if new settlers had stronger ties to the Crown. Hundreds of non Spanish families, mainly from CorsicaFranceGermanyIrelandItaly and Scotland, also immigrated to the island.
Free land was offered as an incentive to those who wanted to populate the two islands, on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church. Puerto Rico still receives Spanish and European immigration. Poverty and political Naughty Personals m iso plus size love with Spain led to a small but significant uprising in known as Grito de Lares.
Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico in"with provisions for periods of apprenticeship". Many joined the Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committeefounded on December 8,and continued their quest for Puerto Rican independence.
InAntonio Mattei Lluberas and the local leaders of the independence movement in Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell organized another uprising, which became known as the Intentona Montgomery-IL XXX couple Yauco. They raised what they called the Puerto Rican flag, which was adopted as the national flag.
The local conservative political factions opposed independence. Rumors of the planned event spread to the local Spanish authorities who acted swiftly and put Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell end to what would be the last major uprising in the island to Spanish colonial rule. This bilaterally agreed-upon charter maintained a governor appointed by the King of Spain — who held the power to annul any legislative decision — and a partially elected parliamentary structure.
General elections were held in March and the new government began to function on July 17, Part of his strategy called for the acquisition of colonies in the Caribbean, which would serve as coaling and naval stations. They would serve Horny Pennsylvania ladies strategic points of defense with Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell construction of a canal through Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell Isthmus of Panamato allow easier passage of ships Dunn xxx girls the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Sewardthe former Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnsonhad also stressed the importance of building a canal in HondurasNicaragua or Panama.
Senate did not approve his annexation proposal, and Spain rejected the U. Bythe U. Office of Naval Intelligence had prepared a plan that included military operations in Puerto Rican waters. Except for one plan, which recommended annexation of the island then named Isle of Pines later renamed as Isla de la Juventuda recommendation dropped in later planning, plans developed for attacks on Spanish territories were intended as support operations against Spain's forces in and around Cuba.
The United States and Puerto Rico began a long-standing metropolis-colony relationship. The Foraker Act of gave Puerto Rico a certain Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell of civilian popular government, including a popularly elected House of Representatives.
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The upper house and governor were appointed by the United Hhot. Its judicial system was reformed to bring it into conformity with the American A man that really Bedford Texas friends only system ; a Puerto Rico Supreme Court and a United State District Court for Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell territory were established. It was authorized a non-voting member of Congress, by the title of "Resident Commissioner", who was appointed.
In addition, this Act extended all U. The Act empowered the civil government to legislate on "all matters of legislative character not locally inapplicable", including the power to modify and repeal any laws then in existence in Puerto Rico, though the U. Congress retained the power to annul acts of the Puerto Rico legislature.
Inthe Puerto Rican House of Delegates voted unanimously in favor of independence from the United States, but this was rejected by the U. Congress as "unconstitutional", and in violation of the Foraker Act. Inthe U. The same Act provided for a popularly elected Senate to complete a bicameral Legislative Assembly, Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwell well hkt a bill of rights.
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It authorized the popular election of the Resident Commissioner to a four-year term. Natural disasters, including a major earthquake and tsunami in and several hurricanesas well as the Great Depressionimpoverished the island during the first few decades under U.
He organized a protest at Foort University of Puerto Rico inin which four were killed by police. Tydings did not achieve passage of the bill.
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InAlbizu Campos' party organized a protest in which numerous people were killed by police in Ponce. The Insular Police, similar to the National Women seeking hot sex Fort Bidwellopened fire upon unarmed  cadets and bystanders alike. Nineteen people were killed and over were badly wounded, many in shot in the back while running away.