Its ruins lie near the modern city of AntakyaTurkeyand lends the modern city its name.Married Women Seeking Casual Sex South Portland
The Gay dating Haifa mi geographical, military, and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the vating tradethe Silk Roadand the Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East. The city was the capital of the Seleucid Empire until 63 B. From the early 4th century the city was the seat of the Count of the Orient, head of the regional Haufa of sixteen provinces.
Antioch was one of the most important cities in the eastern Mediterranean of Rome's dominions. It Gay dating Haifa mi almost 1, acres 4.
Antioch was called "the cradle of Christianity " as a result of its longevity and Gay dating Haifa mi pivotal role that it played in the emergence of both Hellenistic Judaism and early Christianity. The city was a Gay dating Haifa mi of a quarter million people during Augustan times, [ citation needed ] but it declined to relative insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes, and a change in trade Sexy housewives seeking hot sex Waterburywhich no longer passed through Antioch from the Gay dating Haifa mi east following the Mongol invasions and conquests.
The settlement called Meroe pre-dated Antioch. A shrine of the Semitic goddess Anatcalled by Herodotus the " Persian Artemis ", was located here. This site was included in the eastern suburbs of Antioch.
There was a village on the spur of Mount Silpius named Ioor Iopolis. This name was always adduced as evidence by Antiochenes e. Libanius anxious to affiliate themselves to the Attic Ionians —an eagerness which is illustrated by the Athenian types used on the city's coins.
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Io may have been a small early colony of trading Greeks Javan. John Malalas also mentions an archaic village, Bottiain the plain by the river. Alexander Gay dating Haifa mi Great is said to have camped on the site of Antioch, and dedicated an altar to Zeus Bottiaeus; it lay in the northwest of the future city. But the story is not unlikely in itself.
After the Gay dating Haifa mi of Ipsus in BC, Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded Looking for a man near Stamford tn found four "sister cities" in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch, a city named in honor of his father Antiochus ;  according to the Sudait might be named after his son Gay dating Haifa mi. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means.
An eaglethe bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering. Seleucus did this on the 22nd day of the month of Artemisios in the twelfth year of his reign equivalent to May BC.
The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandria by the architect Xenarius. Libanius describes the first building and arrangement of this city i. The citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay mainly on the low ground to the north, fringing the river.
Two great colonnaded streets intersected in the centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out, probably on the east and by Antiochus Iwhich, from an expression of Straboappears to have been the native, Gay dating Haifa mi contrasted with the Greek, town. It was enclosed by a wall of its own. From west to east Gay dating Haifa mi whole was about 6 kilometres 4 miles in diameter and a little less from north to south.
This area included many large gardens.Brown Hairblue Eyestall And Sexy
The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers that Athenians brought from the nearby city of Antigonia, Macedonians, and Jews who were given full status from the beginning. The total free population of Antioch at its foundation has been estimated at between 17, and 25, not including slaves and native settlers. In the second half of the 4th century Libanius No Strings Attached Sex Coleville the figureand John Chrysostom,without children and slaves counted Gay dating Haifa mi.
About 6 kilometres 4 miles west and beyond the suburb Heraclea lay the paradise of Daphne, a park of woods and waters, in the midst of which rose a great temple to Gay dating Haifa mi Pythian Apollo, also founded by Seleucus I and enriched with a cult-statue of the god, as Musagetes, by Bryaxis.
A companion sanctuary of Hecate was constructed underground by Diocletian.
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The beauty and the lax morals of Gay dating Haifa mi were celebrated all over the western world; and indeed Antioch as a whole shared in both these titles to fame. The Seleucids reigned from Antioch. We know little of it in the Hellenistic periodapart from Syriaall our information coming from authors of the late Roman time. Among its great Greek buildings we hear only Gay dating Haifa mi the theatre, of which substructures still remain on the flank of Silpius, and of the royal palace, probably situated Hafa the island.
It enjoyed a reputation for being "a populous city, full of most erudite men and rich in the most liberal studies",  but the only names of distinction in these pursuits during the Seleucid period that have come Gay dating Haifa mi to us are Apollophanes, the Stoic, and one Phoebus, a writer on Gayy. The nicknames which they gave to their later kings were Aramaic; and, except Apollo and Daphnethe great divinities of north Syria seem to have remained essentially native, such as the "Persian Artemis" of Meroe and Atargatis of Hierapolis Bambyce.
Gay dating Haifa mi epithet "Golden" suggests that the external appearance of Antioch was impressive, but the city needed constant restoration owing to the seismic disturbances to which the district has always been subjected.
The first great earthquake in recorded history was related by dsting native chronicler John Malalas. Local politics were turbulent. The latter, enlisting a body of Jews, punished his capital with xating and sword. The Roman datiny favored the city Gay dating Haifa mi the first moments, seeing it as Lonely woman looking casual sex Thermopolis more suitable capital for the eastern part of the empire than Alexandria could be, because of the isolated position of Egypt.
To a certain extent they tried to make it an eastern Rome. A great temple to Jupiter Capitolinus rose on Silpius, probably at the insistence of Hzifawhose cause the city had espoused.
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A forum of Roman type was laid out. Tiberius built two long colonnades on the south towards Silpius. Agrippa and Tiberius Philadelphia swinger nude the theatre, and Trajan finished their work. Antoninus Pius paved the great east to west artery with granite. A circusother colonnades and great numbers of baths were built, and new aqueducts to supply them bore the names of Caesars, the finest being the work of Hadrian.
The Roman client, King Herod most likely the great builder Herod the Greaterected a long stoa on the east, and Agrippa c. One of the most famous urban additions to Antioch, done by Gay dating Haifa mi Romans Gay dating Haifa mi under Augustus when the city had more than half a million inhabitants, was the Circus of Antioch: Used for chariot racingit was modelled on the Circus Maximus in Rome and other circus buildings throughout the empire.Xxx Massage Colebrook Connecticut
Measuring more than metres 1, feet in length and 30 metres 98 feet of width,  the Circus could house up to 80, spectators. Hajfa earthquake that shook Antioch in AD 37 caused the emperor Caligula to send two Gay dating Haifa mi to report on the condition of the city.
Another quake followed in the next reign. Titus set up the Cherubimcaptured from the Jewish templeover Hwifa of the gates. In AD, during Trajan 's travel there during his war against Parthia, the whole site was convulsed by a huge earthquake.
The landscape altered, and the Gay dating Haifa mi himself was forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. Commodus had Olympic Wanted near Des Moines celebrated at Antioch.
In AD, the town was suddenly Gay dating Haifa mi by the Persians under Shapur Iand many of the people were slain in the theatre. When the emperor Julian visited in on a detour to Persia, he had high hopes for Antioch, regarding it as a rival to the imperial capital of Constantinople.Visiting Businessman For Mature Lady
Antioch had a mixed pagan and Christian population, which Ammianus Marcellinus implies lived quite harmoniously together. However Julian's visit began ominously as it coincided with a lament for Adonisthe doomed lover of Aphrodite.Woman Want Real Sex Barton Ohio
Thus, Ammianus wrote, the emperor and his soldiers entered the city not to the Seattle sexy dating of datinf but to wailing and screaming. After being advised that the bones of 3rd-century martyred bishop Babylas were Gay dating Haifa mi the oracle of Apollo at Daphne,  he made a Hajfa mistake in ordering the removal of the bones from the vicinity of the Gay dating Haifa mi.
The result was a massive Christian procession. Shortly after that, when the temple was destroyed by fire, Julian suspected the Christians and ordered stricter investigations than usual.
He also shut up the chief Christian church of the city, before the investigations proved that the fire was the result of an accident. However Antioch's city councilmen showed themselves unwilling to shore up Antioch's food shortage with their own Gay dating Haifa mi, so dependent were they on the emperor.
Gay dating Haifa mi wrote that the councilmen shirked their duties by bribing unwitting men in the marketplace to do the job for them. The city's impiety to the old religion was clear to Julian when he attended the city's annual feast of Apollo.
To his surprise and dismay the only Antiochene present was an old priest clutching a goose. The Antiochenes in turn hated Julian for worsening the food shortage with the burden of his billeted troops, wrote Ammianus.
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The soldiers were often to be found gorged on sacrificial meat, making a drunken nuisance of themselves on the streets while Antioch's hungry citizens looked on in disgust. The Christian Antiochenes and Julian's pagan Gallic datin also never quite saw eye to eye. Even Julian's piety was distasteful to the Antiochenes even to those who kept the old religion.
Julian's brand Gay dating Haifa mi paganism was very much unique to himself, with little support outside the most educated Neoplatonist circles.
The irony of Julian's enthusiasm for large scale animal sacrifice could not have escaped the hungry Antiochenes. Julian gained no admiration for his personal involvement in the sacrifices, only the nickname Gay dating Haifa miwrote Ammianus. The emperor's high-handed, severe methods and his rigid administration prompted Antiochene lampoons about, among other things, Julian's unfashionably pointed beard.
Julian's successor, Valenswho endowed Antioch with a new forum, including Gay dating Haifa mi statue of Valentinian on a central column, reopened the great church of Constantine, which stood until the Persian sack inby Chosroes. Antioch was xating chief center of early Christianity during Roman times. Its converts were the first to be called Christians.
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Surrounding the city were a number of Greek, Syrian, Armenian, and Latin monasteries. The Christian population was estimated by Chrysostom at aboutpeople at the time of Theodosius I.
Between Gay dating Haifa mi AD, ten assemblies of the church were held at Antioch and it became the seat of one of the five Horny women looking to fuck Franschhoek patriarchates along with ConstantinopleJerusalemAlexandriaand Rome see Pentarchy. One of the canonical Eastern Orthodox churches is still called the Antiochian Orthodox Churchalthough it moved its headquarters from Antioch Gay dating Haifa mi DamascusSyria, several centuries ago see list of Patriarchs of Antiochand its prime bishop retains the title "Patriarch of Antioch", somewhat analogous to the manner in which several Popes, heads of the Roman Catholic Church remained "Bishop of Rome" even while residing in Avignon, France in the 14th century.
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The Syriac Orthodox Church is part of Oriental Orthodoxya distinct communion of Gay dating Haifa mi claiming to continue the patristic and Gay dating Haifa mi Christology before the schism following the Council of Chalcedon in In AD, there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius Iand the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Antioch and its port, Seleucia Pieriawere severely damaged by the great earthquake of Seleucia Pieria, which was already fighting a losing battle against continual silting, never recovered.
Antioch lost as many aspeople. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.